Table 1

Studies included in the meta-analysis; for more detailed information, see original meta-analysis [11]

First author, year

Setting

Study period

Ages*

Sex

RR (for low and middle versus high educational level) (95% CI)

Variables controlled for


Kouvonen A et al., 2008 [14]

Cohort study, Finland

1986-2004

18-65

Men

High (≥13 yrs): 1.00

Middle (10-12 yrs): 0.91 (0.63-1.30)

Low (≤9 yrs): 1.39 (0.98-1.97)

Age by adjustment

Medalie J et al., 1974 [16]

Cohort study, Tel Aviv, Israel

1963-1968

40+

Men

High (≥13 yrs): 1.00

Middle (10-12 yrs): 1.35 (1.00-1.83)

Low (≤9 yrs): 1.63 (1.22-2.18)

Nonea

Robbins J et al., 2005 [17]

Cohort study (NHANES), US

1980-1992

29-84

Men

Women

High (≥13 yrs): 1.00

Middle (10-12 yrs): 1.19 (0.86-1.63)

Low (≤9 yrs): 1.52 (1.15-2.01)

High (≥13 yrs): 1.00

Middle (10-12 yrs): 1.37 (1.02-1.83)

Low (≤9 yrs): 2.24 (1.71-2.94)

Nonea

Nonea

Kaye S et al., 1991 [13]

Nested case-control study, Iowa, US

1985-1987

55-69

Women

High (≥13 yrs): 1.00

Middle (10-12 yrs): 1.25 (0.97-1.61)

Low (≤9 yrs): 2.00 (1.51-2.65)

Age by adjustment

Lidfeldt J et al., 2007 [15]

Cohort study (the Nurse's Health Study), US

1992-2002

46-71

Women

High (≥15 yrs): 1.00

Middle (13-14 yrs): 1.34 (1.19-1.52)

Low (≤12 yrs): 1.79 (1.61-2.0)

High (≥15 yrs): 1.00

Middle (13-14 yrs): 1.14 (1.01-1.29)

Low (≤12 yrs): 1.16 (1.04-1.29)

Age by adjustment

Age, BMI, physical activity, quintile of dietary score, alcohol consumption, smoking baseline hypertension + hypercholesterolemia, FHD, menopausal, use of HRT, ethnicity, birth weight, breastfeeding, and childhood SEP by adjustment


a Risk estimate calculated from crude data

*Ages at baseline or at diagnosis, for cases only or total, depending on reporting, given as mean or age range

RR = relative risk, CI = confidence interval, BMI = body mass index, WHR = waist-hip-ratio, FHD = family history of diabetes, HRT = hormone replacement therapy, SEP = socioeconomic position

Agardh et al. Population Health Metrics 2011 9:60   doi:10.1186/1478-7954-9-60

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