Table 4

Adjusted incidence a and risk ratios of obesity b and extreme obesity c among adults aged ≥18 years, by selected socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral factors, Behavioral Risk Facto Surveillance System: United States, 2009

Obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2)

Extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2)

Characteristic/behavioral factor

Adjusted incidence

Risk ratio

Adjusted incidence

Risk ratio

% (SE)

Ratio

(95% CI)

% (SE)

Ratio

(95% CI)


Age group (years)

18-29

6.4 (0.37)

1.0 d

1.2 (0.15)

1.0

30-49

4.8 (0.16) e

0.8

(0.7, 0.9)

0.9 (0.06)

0.7

(0.6, 1.0)

50-69

3.3 (0.11)

0.5

(0.5, 0.6)

0.5 (0.03)

0.4

(0.3, 0.6)

≥ 70

1.5 (0.10)

0.2

(0.2, 0.3)

0.2 (0.04)

0.2

(0.1, 0.3)

Sex

Women

5.4 (0.14)

1.0

0.9 (0.05)

1.0

Men

3.2 (0.12)

0.6

(0.5, 0.6)

0.6 (0.05)

0.6

(0.5, 0.8)

Race/ethnicity

White, non-Hispanic

3.4 (0.09)

1.0

0.6 (0.04)

1.0

Black, non-Hispanic

6.0 (0.41)

1.8

(1.5, 2.0)

0.8 (0.08)

1.3

(1.1, 1.6)

Hispanic

5.5 (0.37)

1.6

(1.4, 1.9)

1.0 (0.15)

1.5

(1.1, 2.1)

Educational level

< High school

5.1 (0.34)

1.0

0.9 (0.12)

1.0

High school

4.8 (0.20)

0.9

(0.8, 1.1)

0.8 (0.07)

0.9

(0.6, 1.2)

Some college

4.2 (0.17)

0.8

(0.7, 1.0)

0.7 (0.06)

0.7

(0.5, 1.0)

College graduate

2.9 (0.13)

0.6

(0.5, 0.7)

0.5 (0.05)

0.5

(0.4, 0.7)

Census region

Northeast

4.1 (0.22)

1.0

0.6 (0.07)

1.0

Midwest

4.1 (0.16)

1.0

(0.9, 1.1)

0.7 (0.06)

1.1

(0.8, 1.4)

South

4.3 (0.17)

1.1

(0.9, 1.2)

0.9 (0.07)

1.4

(1.1, 1.8)

West

3.8 (0.21)

0.9

(0.8, 1.1)

0.6 (0.08)

0.9

(0.7, 1.3)

Territory

3.4 (0.42)

0.8

(0.6, 1.1)

0.3 (0.10)

0.5

(0.3, 1.0)

Leisure-time physical activity

No

5.1 (0.19)

1.0

1.0 (0.07)

1.0

Yes

3.7 (0.11)

0.7

(0.7, 0.8)

0.6 (0.04)

0.6

(0.5, 0.7)

≥ 5 times of fruits and vegetables per day

No

4.1 (0.11)

1.0

0.7 (0.04)

1.0

Yes

3.9 (0.18)

0.9

(0.8, 1.0)

0.6 (0.07)

0.9

(0.7, 1.1)

Smoking

Nonsmoker

3.5 (0.11)

1.0

0.7 (0.05)

1.0

Former smoker

5.0 (0.20)

1.4

(1.3, 1.6)

0.8 (0.07)

1.2

(1.0, 1.5)

Current smoker

4.8 (0.23)

1.4

(1.2, 1.6)

0.7 (0.08)

1.0

(0.8, 1.3)

Alcohol drinking

No drinking

4.4 (0.14)

1.0

0.8 (0.05)

1.0

Any drinking

3.8 (0.14)

0.9

(0.8, 1.0)

0.6 (0.05)

0.8

(0.6, 0.9)

Heavy drinking

3.8 (0.40)

0.9

(0.7, 1.1)

0.7 (0.20)

0.9

(0.5, 1.6)

Baseline BMI (kg/m2)

11.7-24.9

0.7 (0.06)

1.0

-f

- f

25.0-27.4

3.7 (0.19)

5.5

(4.4, 6.8)

-

-

-

27.5-29.9

14.4 (0.37)

21.6

(17.8, 26.2)

-

-

-

11.7-29.9

-g

-g

0.1 (0.02)

1.0

30.0-32.4

-

-

-

0.5 (0.10)

6.6

(3.6, 12.1)

32.5-34.9

-

-

-

1.0 (0.14)

13.9

(8.3, 23.5)

35.0-37.4

-

-

-

3.4 (0.28)

48.5

(30.2, 77.9)

37.5-39.9

-

-

-

11.4 (0.85)

161.6

(101.0, 258.7)


a Predictive margins adjusted for baseline BMI and all other socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral factors in the model

b Obesity: BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2

c Extreme obesity: BMI ≥40.0 kg/m2

d Reference group

e p < 0.01 for pairwise contrast to test for the difference between the bolded estimate and the estimate for the reference group

f Not applicable; we combined these three baseline BMI categories for adults who were at risk for extreme obesity to ensure adequate sample size

g Not applicable; we used three baseline BMI categories (as indicted in the table) for adults who were at risk for obesity

Pan et al. Population Health Metrics 2011 9:56   doi:10.1186/1478-7954-9-56

Open Data