Table 1

InterVA indicators and cause of death categories.


Cause of Death Categories

was this an elder 65+ years

any chronic/recurrent diarr (4+w)

Perinatal asphyxia

was this an adult 50-64 years

any abdominal swelling

Congenital malformation

was this a female 15-49 years

any vomiting


was this a male 15-49 years

any yellowness/jaundice


was this a child 5-14 years

any abnormality of urine


was this a child 1-4 years

any urinary retention


was this an infant 4 wks-1 yr

any haematuria


was this a neonate < 4 wks

any swelling of ankles/legs


was she pregnant at death

no bilateral swelling of ankle


did pregnancy end within 6 weeks

any skin lesions/ulcers

Bloody diarrhea

did final illness last at least 3 weeks

any rash (non-measles)

Other acute infection

did final illness last < 3 weeks

any herpes zoster


was death very sudden/unexpected

any measles rash


was death during wet season

any excessive night sweats

HIV/AIDS related

was death during dry season

any excessive water intake

Pulmonary tuberculosis

was s/he in a transport accident

any excessive urination

Chronic infection

did s/he drown

any excessive food intake

Maternal causes

had s/he fallen recently

any acute fever

Acute respiratory disease (not pnem.)

any poisoning, bite, sting

any persistent fever (> 2 wk)

Chronic respiratory disease

was s/he a known smoker

any enlarged/swollen glands

Acute cardiac

any obvious recent injury

any facial swelling

Chronic cardiac

was s/he known to drink alcohol

was there a coma > 24 hrs


any suggestion of homicide

any weight loss


any convulsions or fits

any anaemia/paleness


any diagnosis of epilepsy

any drowsiness

Liver disease

was the fontanelle raised

any delayed/regressed development

Kidney disease

was the fontanelle or eyeball sunken

any diagnosis of asthma

Disorders of the digestive system

any headache

any diagnosis of diabetes

Diseases of the nervous system

was there paralysis on both sides

any diagnosis of heart disease

Sickle cell anemia

any paralysis/weakness on 1 side

any diagnosis of HIV/AIDS

Transport-related accident

any stiff neck

any diagnosis of hypertension

Accidental poisoning

any oral candidiasis

been discharged from hospital very ill

Accidental drowning

any rigidity/lockjaw

any suggestion of suicide

Other accident

abnormal hair coloring

any surgery just before death


any coughing with blood

any diagnosis of TB


any chest pain

was s/he adequately vaccinated

was there a cough for > 3 wks

any diagnosis of liver disease

Additional indicators

was there a cough for up to 3 wks

any diagnosis of cancer

did baby have arched back after 2 days

any productive cough

any diagnosis of stroke

baby stopped sucking after day 3

any rapid breathing

any diagnosis of measles

did the baby die on day 1

any breathlessness on exertion

any diagnosis of kidney disease

did the mother fail to receive tetanus toxoid vaccine

any breathlessness lying flat

any diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy

did convulsions happen on day 1

any chest indrawing

any diagnosis of malaria

was there no cry/move/breath at birth

any difficulty breathing

any delivery complications

was baby's skin puffy/mushy at birth

any breast lump or lesion

any heavy bleeding around delivery

did the baby fail to cry at birth

any wheezing

was there prolonged labor > 24 hrs

any cyanosis

were there convulsions during delivery

any abdominal mass

was the baby born early < 34 wks

Additional causes of death

any abdominal pain

was the baby small < 2500 g

Fresh stillbirth

any diarrhea with blood

was there difficulty breathing at birth

Macerated stillbirth

any vomiting with blood

any congenital malformations

any acute diarrhea (< 2 wks)

was this a multiple birth

any persistent diarrhea (2-4 wks)

any umbilical infection

Indicators added following refinement of InterVA for neonatal deaths are highlighted in bold.

Vergnano et al. Population Health Metrics 2011 9:48   doi:10.1186/1478-7954-9-48

Open Data