Table 1

Indicators and causes of death used in the InterVA-M model



was she pregnant at death

had professional assistance at delivery

HIV/AIDS related death

died within 6 w of delivering a baby

was delivery by Caesarean


died within 6 w of early pregnancy ending

was delivery by forceps/Ventouse

tuberculosis (pulmonary)

said to be non-pregnant 6 wks before death

did uterus came out after delivery


was she married at time of death

any swelling of feet and ankles

cardiovascular disease

was death during wet season

any swelling of face

respiratory disease

was she aged under 20 yrs

any blurred vision


was she aged 20 to 34 yrs

any acute abdominal pain


was she aged 35 to 49 yrs

any foul smelling vaginal discharge


had she ever been pregnant

any previous Caesarian section


was she breast-feeding before death

any stiff neck

not pregnant within 6 weeks of death

was the pregnancy unwanted

any excessive night sweats

pregnancy ended within 6 weeks of death

any attempt to terminate pregnancy

any enlarged swollen glands

pregnant at death

was this her first pregnancy

any persistent cough > 3 wks


were there >4 previous pregnancies

any persistent fever > 3 wks


was this a multiple pregnancy

was she coughing up blood

pregnancy-related sepsis

was she < 3 months pregnant at death

any jaundice or yellowness of skin/eyes

non-pregnancy related infection

any history of acute fever

any ulceration or infected wound

obstructed labour

any required IV or IM antibiotics

was she immunized against tetanus

ruptured uterus

was there coma >24 hrs before death

did she require iron injections

pregnancy-induced hypertension

did she ever have fits

any diagnosis of epilepsy


any pallor and/or anaemia

any diagnosis of TB


any general swelling of body

any diagnosis of HIV/AIDS

ectopic pregnancy

breathless carrying out normal activities

any diagnosis of thrush

any weight loss

any diagnosis of Karposi's sarcoma

Recently bed bound for most of day

any diagnosis of malaria

any sudden collapse

any diagnosis of liver disease

any blood transfusion required

any diagnosis of haemoglobinopathy

hysterectomy shortly before death

any surgery in month before death

any recurrent fever

any diagnosis of cancer

any shivering with fever

any diagnosis of heart disease

major bleeding in 1st 3 months of preg

any suggestion of recent injury

major bleeding in pregnancy or delivery

any suggestion of suicide

did the placenta remain inside

was death within 24 hrs of preg ending

any delay in reduction of uterus size

was blood pressure raised during preg

any proteinuria reported

were fits only pregnancy related

was labour prolonged >24 hr

was a baby delivered alive

did she die in labour undelivered

was baby's position abnormal

was baby too big for delivery

was part of baby prolapsed

was delivery at home

was delivery at a health facility

Fottrell et al. Population Health Metrics 2007 5:1   doi:10.1186/1478-7954-5-1

Open Data